The issue of wildlife poaching has been a persistent problem in many African nations for decades. Recently, poisoning has become the preferred method used by poachers and farmers. Unsuspecting wildlife is lured into consuming tainted food sources through baiting. Pesticides, many of which have been banned or outlawed, have become a favored option for poachers and farmers due to the low cost, ample supply and efficacy. A dramatic decrease in animal populations, some close to extinction has been exacerbated by the use of poisons.
Additionally, unintentional secondary poisonings are also posing a threat to humans and wildlife alike. Due to the natural African food chain, the poisoning does not stop with the animals initially targeted and poached. As different species forage, discover and feed on the remains of these poisoned animals, they too fall victim of toxic chemical ingestion. Secondary poisonings have claimed the lives of hyenas, vultures, and other scavengers who are critical in maintaining the African ecosystem. In some cases, even humans have been poisoned through the consumption of bush meat.
What is Being Done to Address This Crisis?
The CFSRE specializes in forensic testing of biological, chemical and toxicological materials. In 2016, we began receiving requests to develop a qualitative toxicological test to analyze samples from wildlife and bait that was suspected of being poisoned by poachers and others. From the initial inquiry, we have developed a network with conservation groups in South Africa and other African countries who are investigating poisoning deaths of protected species and other wildlife. Considering many African nations are not equipped with our laboratory's capacity to detect poisons, our pilot project has trained and educated collaborators to safely collect, preserve, process and ship samples to us for analysis. When suspected poisoning samples arrive at our facility, Meaghan Drumm MSFS (project lead research scientist) utilizes a basic liquid-liquid extraction and conducts analysis using the Waters Acquity UPLC coupled to a Waters Xevo TQD MS. Sample types have ranged from baited fruit, stomach, intestinal and crop contents, muscle, urine, liver, serum, and tissue. Positive results have revealed that carbofuran, aldicarb, and monocrotophos are the dominant pesticides used in these poisonings.
When positive test results are detected, we identify the substance used in the poisonings in order to assist wildlife advocates with wildlife conservation and rehabilitation efforts. We also share the findings with our collaborators conservation and humanitarian organizations working with communities to teach them the benefits of safely living with wildlife by substituting proven methods to address human.wildlife conflict therefore eliminating the use of poisons. Communities are being educated about the dangers of releasing poisons into the ecosystem resulting in the collapse of the wildlife bionetwork.
Currently, we at the CFSRE are continually developing and improving our forensic wildlife program, presenting findings at international chemistry and toxicology conferences, and expanding the reach of this initiative through a growing network of project collaborators and sponsors. For more information and to find out how you can get involved, please contact Meaghan Drumm, MSFS at: Wildlife.Poisoning@frfoundation.org.
Meaghan Drumm, MSFS, is the lead research scientist for this project whose work includes the development and validation of assays for pesticides detection, including both the methodology for sample collection and preparation. She also conducts validation studies, method development work and esoteric toxicological analyses of samples received.
Dr. Stephen F. Donovan has extensive experience in agrochemistry, clinical chemistry, organic chemistry and a wide variety of analytical techniques. He is a mentor in applying analytical techniques in agrochemistry relative to conservation and poisoning prevention.
Alana Balogh, BFA, Environmental Science AA,
Montgomery County Police Academy, PA State Park Ranger II. Alana has worked with an extensive network of conservation partners in the US and Africa to promote conservation & environmental protection.
Dr. Barry K. Logan, Executive Director, holds a dual appointment at the CFSRE as well as Sr. VP of Forensic Science Initiatives and Chief Scientist at NMS Labs. He is a renowned Forensic Toxicologist experienced in the administration of federal and NGO research
Dr. Michael F. Rieders, is Chief Science Officer, and a federal and state licensed laboratory director and forensic toxicologist at NMS Labs, Inc. with over 35 years of expertise. He is currently working on grants with international partners.
Publications & Presentations
Meaghan P. Drumm, Stephen F. Donovan, Alana J. Balogh, Barry K. Logan, SOFT, Platform Presentation, October 2018
"Multi-Species Action Plan for The Conservation of Vultures"
Alana J. Balogh and Stephen F. Donovan, Wildlife Poisoning Conference in Pretoria South Africa, Workshop, August 2018
Alana J. Balogh and Stephen F. Donovan, Wildlife Poisoning in Pretoria South Africa, Workshop, August 2018
“Analysis of Carbamate and Organophosphate Pesticides in Animal Poisoning Cases by GC/MS”
Jessica M. Greene, Stephen F. Donovan, Alana J. Balogh, Barry K. Logan, Pennsylvania Research Exchange, Platform Presentation, March 2017
“Analysis of Carbamate and Organophosphate Pesticides in Animal Poisoning Cases by Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry”
Jessica M. Greene, Stephen F. Donovan, Alana J. Balogh, Barry K. Logan, AAFS, Poster Presentation, February 2017
“An Overview of the Chemistry, Manufacture, Environmental Fate and Detection of Carbofuran”
Stephen F. Donovan, Mark Taggart and Ngaio Richards, Chapter 1 in Carbofuran and Wildlife Poisoning: Global Perspectives and Forensic Approaches, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2012. Editorial Assistance: Alana Balogh and Others